Types Of Shafts And Its Applicability
1. According To Whether There Are Steps On The Shafts
The motor shaft can be divided into optical shafts and a stepped shaft two kinds. Optical shafts are made of cold-draw steel, which can reduce the man-hour machining of outer circle shafts and can be applied in miniature motors. Stepped shafts can be easily and reliably installed with many different parts. Therefore, most motors use this kind of shaft.
Stepped shafts, according to their different directions, can be divided into unidirectional stepped shafts( the step diameter decreases step by step from one end of the shaft to the other)and bidirectional stepped shafts(the step diameter decreases step by step from the middle of the shaft to both ends).
2. Classification According To The Manufacturing Process Of The Shaft Blank
The motor shaft can be divided into round steel shafts (made of hot rolled round steel carts), forged shafts (made of forgings) and welding shafts (welded with radial bars).
The turning shaft parts of the hot rolled round steel are the most common shaft parts in the medium and small motor. The shaft parts materials are commonly used 45 high-quality carbon structural steel.
For small power motors, some use Q235 common carbon steel. The blank diameter should be selected according to the maximum diameter of the shaft plus the machining allowance.
Therefore, the amount of cutting is relatively large. When the motor shaft diameter is more than 100mm, the forged shaft should be used. The forging steel has higher mechanical strength, and if forged in the general shape of the stepped shaft, the raw materials and cutting time can be saved.
For large-size motor shafts with high mechanical strength requirements, such as the shafts of turbo-generators, alloy steel forging is often used. The welding shaft uses radial bars instead of the rotor bracket, which can increase the ventilation area of the rotor inner cavity.
However, when welding the rid wire, it is easy to cause the deformation of the shaft and must be annealed after welding. Discontinuous cutting in machine tools is detrimental to the tool. Due to the existence of the weld seam, the fatigue strength of the shaft is significantly reduced, so it is not suitable for high-speed motors.
3. Classification According To The Combination Of Shaft And Iron Core
The shaft type can be divided into the middle knurling shaft, hot sleeve shaft, and middle keyway shaft. The knurling shaft is used for the miniature motor which powers below 10 kw, which can save the working time of machining keyway.
However, when the shaft is pressed into the iron core, it is easy to cause the deformation of the shaft. In the motor operating, some knurling rotors caused the iron core to move axially.
This motor shaft deformation is caused by the tight connection of the shaft and iron core, and the shaft transformation is caused by insufficient interference between them.
The middle of the hot sleeve shaft is neither knurling nor keyway. There is a certain amount of interference between the shaft and the inner hole of the iron core, and the rotating shaft parts are set when the iron core is in a hot state.
As long as the interference is selected appropriately, the combination of the rotor core and the shaft is very reliable. The shaft with a keyway in the middle can be divided into one segment keyway and two-segment keyways. The shaft with one segment keyway is used for small motors. The shaft with two two-segment keyways is applied to the medium and large motor.
The rotor core (or bracket) and the shaft are connected by the keyway. The iron core is fixed in the shaft direction, one end is added with a convex shoulder, and the other end is stuck in the annular keyway on the shaft with an arc key.
The shaft combined with the iron core can transmit larger torque, which is often used in the motor with large power and the motor with frequent positive and negative rotations or the rotor core is not suitable for a hot sleeve.
4. Classification According To Shaft Tensile Shape
This classification method divides the shafts into Cylindrical tensile shafts, Conical tensile shafts, and tensile shafts with half coupling. The tensile processing of cylindrical shafts is simple, and most applied in the motor. Round dimension shaft auxiliary tensile shaft includes the fastening bolt, so the processing is large.
However, the equipped transmission wheel of the Conical tensile shaft is convenient for loading and unloading and is mostly used for special motors. Shafts with semi-couplings are mainly used in hydro-generators and large DC devices.
5. Classification According To The Shape Of The Shaft Core
This classification method divides the shafts into a solid shape, one end with a deep hole shaft, and a shaft with a central through hole. Solid shafts are most commonly used as motor shaft parts.
Shafts with deep holes at one end are mainly used in wound asynchronous motors to connect the lead wire on the rotor with the collector ring outside the end cover through the hole.
Shafts with central through-holes are used mainly for large motors: in twin-water internal cooling turbogenerators, the central through-holes are also used as part of the cooling waterway.
6. Classification According To Shaft’s Permeability
This classification method divides the shafts into magnetic shafts and non-magnetic shafts. Magnetic shafts are mainly used in turbogenerators. Some other motor shafts usually do not require magnetic conductivity.
7. Other Classification Methods
According to the number of shaft tensiles, it can be divided into single-shaft tensile shaft and double-shaft tensile shaft; according to the different number of bearings, it can be divided into single-bearing shaft, double-bearing shaft and multi-bearing shaft.
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