Types of Alloys and Their Properties | Common Uses

What Is An Alloy?

An alloy is a mixture of one or more metals or non-metals (there must be at least one metal) after mixing, melting, and cooling. Alloys are diverse chemical substances composed of at least two or more metals or non-metals. According to their performance characteristics, alloys can be divided into superalloys, corrosion-resistant alloys, magnetic alloys, cemented carbides, memory alloys, etc.

As an important basic material, alloys are widely used in various fields of industrial manufacturing, including aerospace, energy industry, 5G construction, auto industry, custom metal manufacturing, etc.

YIJIN Hardware workshop raw materials - aluminum Alloy

Types of Alloys and Their Common Uses

Types of Alloys – Superalloys

Superalloys, also known as heat-resistant alloys or heat-strength alloys, can work in a high-temperature oxidizing atmosphere of 600~1000 ° C and gas corrosion conditions and have good thermal strength, thermal stability, and thermal fatigue properties.

Superalloys are divided into nickel-based superalloys, iron-based superalloys, and cobalt-based superalloys according to the matrix elements, which are widely used in various fields, especially aviation, aerospace, power generation equipment, and shipbuilding industries.

alloy plate

According to basic elements, forming processes, and strengthening methods, Superalloys can be roughly divided into the following categories:

Divided according to the basic elements contained in the alloy: Divided into iron-based superalloys (14.3%), cobalt-based superalloys (5.7%), and nickel-based superalloys (80%);

Divided according to the alloy manufacturing process: Divided into deformed superalloy (accounting for 70%), cast superalloy (accounting for 20%), and new superalloy (powder superalloy).

alloy plate

Types of Alloys – Cemented Carbide

Cemented carbide is mainly composed of the powder of one or more refractory carbides (tungsten carbide, titanium carbide, etc.), and metal powder (cobalt, nickel, etc.) is added as a binder and is obtained by powder metallurgy alloy.

Cemented carbide is mainly used to manufacture high-speed cutting tools and cutting tools for hard and tough materials, as well as cold-working dies, measuring tools, and highly wear-resistant parts that are not impacted and vibrated.

alloys

Types of Alloys – Corrosion-Resisting Alloys

Metal anti-corrosion materials, compared with non-metallic anti-corrosion materials, metal anti-corrosion materials mainly include iron-based alloys (corrosion-resistant stainless steel); nickel-based alloys (Ni-Cr alloy, Ni-Cr-Mo alloy, Ni-Cu alloy, etc. ); active metals.

Types of Alloys – Memory Alloys

Shape memory alloys refer to a class of metallic materials that return to their original shape at a specific temperature. In general, the material is elastically plastic at relatively low temperatures and returns to its pre-molding shape at a higher temperature.

At present, although this shape memory effect is found in many types of alloys, the memory alloys can generate enough restoring force to fully achieve the original shape, so far only Ti-Ni alloys and copper-based memory alloys. (For example, Cu-Zn-Al sum Cu-Al-Ni).

alloys

Types of Alloys – Common Alloys

Nodular cast iron, manganese steel, stainless steel, brass, bronze, copper, solder, duralumin, 18K gold, and 18K platinum.

Most Commonly Used Alloy Grades

4140: Chromium-Molybdenum Steel

4340: Nickel Chrome-Molybdenum Steel

6150: Chrome-Vanadium Steel

8620: HSLA- Nickel – Chromium-Molybdenum Steel

According to the Structure, the Main Types of Alloys are:

  • Mixture alloy (eutectic mixture), when the liquid alloy is solidified, the components of the alloy are crystallized separately, such as solder, bismuth cadmium alloy, etc.;
  • Solid melt alloy, when the liquid alloy solidifies to form a solid solution of the alloy, such as gold and silver alloy;
  • Metallide alloys are alloys in which the components form compounds with each other, such as brass (β -brass, γ -brass, and ε -brass) composed of copper and zinc, etc.
  • Alloys have many properties superior to pure metals, so alloys are used in most applications (see ferroalloy, stainless steel).

All Types of Alloys Have the Following Properties:

  • The melting point of most alloys is lower than that of any of their constituent metals;
  • The hardness of the alloy is greater than that of any of its components;
  • The electrical and thermal conductivity of the alloy is lower than that of any component metal. High resistance and thermal resistance materials can be made by using this property of alloys. Materials with special properties can also be made, such as adding 15% chromium and 9% nickel to iron to get corrosion-resistant stainless steel, suitable for the chemical industry.
  • Some have strong corrosion resistance (such as stainless steel).
  • The alloy strengthening method is divided into solid solution strengthening type, precipitation strengthening type, oxide dispersion strengthening type, and grain boundary strengthening type.

Thank you for reading, YIJIN Hardware Provides Custom Metal Fabrication, Including Aluminum Machining, Stainless Machining, Titanium Machining, Meganesium Machining, and Brass Machining. 

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