Turning is a machining method that uses cutting edges with specific geometric shapes to rotate the workpiece. Generally, the workpiece rotates while the tool of a single cutting edge moves along the machined surface. While a single cutting edge tool moves along the machined surface, turning is the most common machining method in modern machining methods compared to boring and milling. At present, the problem of turning is almost confined to the cost of chip formation and processing. Controlled chip flow and chip breaking in turning means not only that the material being removed is removed from the machined area, but the chips must break in a controlled manner to remove as much cutting heat as possible from the cutting process.
Types of Turning
By Use-Turning tools can be divided into:
Outer circle, shoulder, end face, grooving, cutting, threading and forming turning tools, etc. There are also special turning tools for automatic line and digital control machine tools.
By Stucture-turning tools can be divided into:
Integral turning tool, welding turning tool, machine clip turning tool, indexable turning tool and forming turning tool. The application of indexable turning tool is becoming more and more extensive, and the proportion of turning tool is gradually increasing.
By materials-turning tools can be divided into:
High speed steel,Non – cast iron alloy cutting tools,Sintering carbide cutter,Ceramic tool,Diamond cutting tool.
Through hole, blind hole, shoulder hole,threaded hole, ect.
For example, in machining, there are variety of hole classification methodsm, such as through hole and blind hole; There are large hole and small hole; Through hole and shoulder hole; Cylindrical and conical hole; Tapping has screw hole and bottom hole; Short hole and deep hole;The blank has cast hole,reserved hole, and so on.
The methods of machining holes are:
Casting-forging,drilling,boring,broaching,reaming,punching,extrusion, upset forging,rolling,etc. The use is selected according to the design requirements, and the processing method is selected according to the use requirements and design accuracy, such as general connectors, which can be drilled directly;For those with positioning requirements, drill-reaming is required; Drilling-broaching-reaming for matching, grinding or honing for precision, scraping and grinding when assembling or repairing.
Milling is also a machining method that removes metal in stages by motion. The tool rotates and usually the workpiece is fed in a straight line toward the tool. In some case, the workpiece remain stationary while the rotating feeds laterally in a straight line. A milling cutter has several cutting edges that can continuously cut off a certain amount of material. Two or more cutting edges cut into the material at the same time, so that the tool cuts the material to a certain depth on the workpiece. Roughing is marked by the amount of chips removed. In roughing, large feeds and as large a depth of cut are used to remove as many chips as possible in a short time. Rough machining does not require high surface quality of workpiece. The main consideration when finishing is the surface amount of the workpiece rather than the chip volume. Finishing usually uses a small depth of cut, and the secondary edge of the tool has a special shape.
Type of Milling
In the actual production of milling processing, including machine tool setting, workpiece clamping, tool selection and other aspects of the application of skills, this period for you briefly summarized 17 points of milling processing, respectively face milling, high feed milling, square shoulder milling, milling groove, cutting,chamfering,punge milling, copy milling, turn milling, cycloid milling, arc milling,linear ramp milling, helical interpolation milling, and thread milling. Each point is worth learning in deep.
①Face milling ②High feed milling ③Square shoulder milling ④Milling groove ⑤Cutting ⑥Chamfering ⑦Punge milling ⑧Copy milling ⑨Turn milling ⑩Cycloid milling ⑪Arc milling ⑫Linear ramp milling ⑬Helical interpolation milling ⑭Thread milling
Definition of face milling: Processing plan. End milling/Face milling is the most common type of milling used to mill a plane parallel to the face of the tool. Milling cutters are often mounted on the spindle. Finish face milling can not only use a cutter with a certain diameter, so that the workpiece processing can be completed in a stroke, but also can use a milling cutter with a diameter that requires several strokes to complete the workpiece processing.
Definition of vertical milling: Machining about 90° of the step surface. This type of milling is somewhat similar to face milling, but the angle of the circumferential cutting edge plays a decisive role.This tool can only be used if part of the workpiece to be machined has a 90° shoulder. The sides of the tool (the entering angle) are parallel to the axis of rotation. This milling, in turn, is often referred to as step milling, shoulder milling or end milling.
Definition of copy milling: Machining a free shape surface(curved surface).
17 Key Points of Milling Application Skills
Check power capacity and machine rigidity to ensure the machine can use the required milling cutter diameter.
Workpiece clamping conditions and considerations.
Keep tool overhang on spindle as short as possible during machining.
④Select the Correct Milling Cutter Pitch
Use the correct milling cutter pitch suitable for the process to ensure that there are no too many blades involved in the cutting, which could cause vibration.
When milling narrow workpiece, make sure there are plenty of blades.
⑥Blade Groove Selection
Use positive indexable inserts wherever possible to ensure smooth cutting action and minimal power consumption.
⑦Use The Correct Feed
Ensure the correct feed of the inserts being used to achieve the correct cutting action by using the recommended maximum chip thickness.
Use climb milling whenever possible.
The material and configuration of the workpiece and the quality requirements of the surface to be machined.
⑩Tool Materials Selection
Choose groove and material according to the material type and application type of the workpiece.
⑪Vibration-Reduced Milling Cutter
Vibration trends become more obvious for longer overhangs of more than 4 times the tool diameter, and the use of vibration-damped tools can significantly increase productivity.
Choose the most appropriate entering Angle.
⑬Milling Cutter Diameter
Select the right diameter according to the width of wokepiece.
⑭Milling Cutter Direction
Position milling cutter correctly.
⑮The Milling Cutter Cuts In and Out
With the arc cut, chip thickness is always zero when the cutter retreats, allowing for higher feed and longer tool life.
Use cooling liquid only when deemed necessary. In general, milling is better performed without cooling liquid.
Follow tool maintenance recommendations and monitor tool wear.
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